Baclayon, in the province of Bohol, Philippines, is renowned as a historical township being the first town to be established in Bohol by the Spaniards. The town was founded n 1595 by two Jesuit priests, Father Juan de Torres and Father Gabriel Sanchez. In 1596 the priests built the Baclayon Chruch of the Immaculate Conception, a heavy set stone church considered one of the oldest in the Philippines.

Baclayon lies six kilometers from Tagbilaran City, the biggest city on Bohol. The name Baclayon was derived from the word 'bacay', meaning detour, as early travelers used to detour around the rocky cliff along the shore to avoid falling from it. 'Bacayon' was the town's original name, from which the official name of Baclayon was formed.

Baclayon is a 4th class municipality comprised of 17 barangays and a population of 18,015, according to the 2007 census. The 17 barangays include;

- Buenaventura
- Cambanac
- Dasitam
- Guiwanon
- Landican
- Laya
- Libertad
- Montana
- Pamilacan
- Payahan
- Poblacion
- San Isidro
- San Roque
- San Vicente
- Santa Cruz
- Taguihon
- Tanday

However, the original territorial jurisdiction of Baclayon was so vast that it covered the present areas of the municipalities of Balilihan, Alburquerque, Catigbian, Corella, Sikatuna, and San Isidro combined together.